Analisis Kapal Berbahan Bakar LNG sebagai Marine Fuel dalam Mengurangi Emisi Gas Buang Terhadap Lalu Lintas Kapal di Pelabuhan Bitung

Hendra Palebangan

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Abstract

Analysis of LNG-Fueled Vessels as Marine Fuel in Reducing Exhaust Emissions Towards Ship Traffic in Bitung Port: The government has a program to convert ship fuel from oil to natural gas aiming to improve the efficiency of sea transportation services. The expansion of the use of natural gas in the maritime sector will reduce the dependence of fuel oil that has been used by ships in Indonesia. On the other hand, natural gas can be used for all sectors: industries, power plants, households, etc. This case is expected to be in line with the level of emissions from this sector so that it can be suppressed to be environmentally friendly rather than using fossil fuels. The limitation of the study is set for marine vessels with the assumption of 1,100 samples of different types of ship sizes using fuel oil (MGO). It is assumed that each ship will spend one day (24 hours) in Bitung port for waiting to dock and three days (72 hours) to do loading and unloading. As a result, the assumption of total activity time is +96 hours for each ship. The activities show the number of working hours of Auxiliary Engine (AE). During the anchored, ship has taken out 9,128.4 tons of emissions (CO, NOx, SOx and PM) to the atmosphere which causes air pollution. The analysis also shows that the emissions of ships docking and anchoring in ports set external factor costs of around 7,080,815 USD that has an economic impact on Bitung Port, community, and environment

Keywords: Bunkering, ports, LNG, sea transportation, eastern Indonesia.

 

Pemerintah mempunyai program konversi bahan bakar kapal dari minyak ke gas alam yang bertujuan untuk memperbaiki efisiensi layanan transportasi laut. Perluasan penggunaan gas alam di sektor maritim akan mengurangi ketergantungan Bahan Bakar Minyak (BBM) yang telah digunakan oleh kapal-kapal di Indonesia. Di sisi lain, gas alam bisa digunakan di seluruh sektor, seperti industri, pembangkit tenaga listrik, hingga rumah tangga. Kasus ini diharapkan sejalan dengan tingkat emisi dari sektor ini untuk bisa ditekan menjadi ramah lingkungan daripada menggunakan bahan bakar fosil. Penelitian ini dibatasi pada kapal laut dengan jumlah kapal yang diasumsikan sebanyak 1.100 sampel dari berbagai jenis ukuran kapal berbeda yang menggunakan bahan bakar BBM (MGO). Pengasumsian setiap kapal akan menghabiskan satu hari (24 jam) di Pelabuhan Bitung untuk menunggu berlabuh dan tiga hari (72 jam) untuk melakukan bongkar muat. Sehingga asumsi total waktu aktivitas yaitu +96 jam untuk setiap kapal.  Waktu aktivitas menunjukkan jumlah jam kerja mesin bantu (AE) dimana selama kapal berlabuh telah mengeluarkan 9.128,4 ton emisi (CO, NOx, SOx dan PM) ke atmosfer yang menyebabkan polusi udara. Analisis tersebut juga menunjukkan bahwa emisi kapal-kapal yang jangkar dan sandar di pelabuhan telah menempatkan biaya faktor eksternal sekitar 7.080.815 USD sehingga memiliki dampak ekonomi terhadap Pelabuhan Bitung, masyarakat, dan lingkungan.

Kata kunci: Bunkering, pelabuhan, LNG, transportasi laut, kawasan timur indonesia.

 

 

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