Rancangan Dasar Struktur Pemecah Gelombang Terapung yang Sesuai dengan Kondisi Perairan di Indonesia

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Abstract

Abstrak

Pemecah gelombang (breakwater) merupakan struktur pelindung yang mampu mereduksi tinggi gelombang yang menuju daerah tertentu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan rancangan dasar (basic design) struktur bangunan pemecah gelombang terapung untuk mengantisipasi kondisi perairan di Indonesia khususnya bagian timur. Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder berupa data perairan, seperti tinggi gelombang, kedalaman perairan, tinggi pasang surut, arah dan kecepatan arus; serta data tanah dari hasil pengujian geoteknik di lapangan. Perkiraan dimensi dari struktur tersebut menggunakan parameter koefisien redaman atau koefisien transfer. Hasil analisis diperoleh desain awal bangunan pemecah gelombang tipe terapung yang sesuai untuk perairan Sausapor. Variabel lingkungannya meliputi panjang gelombang (L) 13,58 meter; periode gelombang  (T) 2,95 detik; dan kedalaman deain(d) 12 meter. Adapun, rancangan dasar untuk pemecah gelombang terapung, yaitu panjang elemen (Lw) 16 meter; lebar struktur (B) 7,15 meter; draft struktur (D) 5 meter; koefisien transmisi (Ct) 0,14; tinggi gelombang datang (Hi) 1,1 meter; dan tinggi gelombang transmisi (Ht) 0,15 meter. Hasil desain awal tersebut belum memperhitungkan kondisi mooring dan pembebanan karena arus. Hal ini memerlukan data yang lebih detail terkait jenis tanah dan arus. Data tanah didapatkan melalui pengujian geoteknik terhadap karakteristik tanah. Adapun, data arus dapat diperoleh dari hasil pengukuran hidro-oseanografi. Kedua data tersebut diperoleh untuk mendapatkan hasil perancangan yang lengkap agar pemecah gelombang terapung dapat ditempatkan di lokasi studi.

Kata kunci: Pemecah gelombang terapung, rancangan dasar, gelombang

 

Abstract

Basic design of suitable floating breakwater structures for the Indonesian seas: A breakwater is a structure used to reduce the height of waves coming to areas that require protection. This research was intended to develop the basic design of a floating breakwater structure to anticipate water conditions, especially in Eastern Indonesia. It used secondary data, namely water data (wave height, water depth, tidal height, current direction, and current velocity) and soil data from the results of geotechnical testing in the field. The dimension of the structure was estimated using the damping or transfer coefficient. The analysis results produced an initial design of floating breakwater structures suitable for waters in the research location based on these environmental variables: wavelength (L)= 13.58 meters, wave period (T)= 2.95 seconds, and depth (d)= 12 meters. Meanwhile, the basic floating breakwater design consisted of breakwater length (Lw)= 16 meters, width (B)= 7.15 meters, draft (D)= 5 meters, coeffisient of transmission (Ct)= 0.14, wave height (Hi)= 1.1 meters, and transmitted wave height (Ht)= 0.15 meters. The initial design did not take into account the mooring and loading conditions due to sea current. Therefore, it requires more detailed information on soil types and currents, which can be collected by, respectively, geotechnical testing of soil characteristics and hydro-oceanographic measurements. Both data can help produce a complete design suitable for the research location.

Keywords:  Pemecah gelombang terapung, rancangan dasar, gelombang

Keywords

Pemecah gelombang terapung, rancangan dasar, gelombang

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