Review of Track Gauge for Trans-Sumatera Railway Revitalization and Development

Autor(s): Soemino Eko Saputro, Prasadja Ricardianto, Haniva Mulyani, Primadi Candra Susanto
DOI: 10.25104/jptd.v22i1.1597


The aim of this research is to comprehend in details how revitalization and development of railway infrastructure on the Trans-Sumatera line in Sumatera Island. The main problem in this research is that the use of railways in Sumatera Island is neither sustainable nor in all provinces. This research is both meta-analytical, by exploring the existing journals, and factual as a phenomenon in the utilization of spoor width that happens in the world today. It is completed by parameter or performance indicators as for benchmarking with other countries. From the result of this research, the data shows that almost 60 percent of existing railway tracks around the world have been installed with standard gauge of 1,435 mm and have been international standard. The benefit of this study is that the leaders or decision makers can take it into account to support the future transportation in Sumatera Island which must be oriented to bigger, faster, safer, cleaner, cheaper, affordable, and leisure. To keep exploiting the existing railway or track can be done by developing construction equipment of track gauge adjuster to change the wheel gauge from 1,435 mm to 1,067 mm. Subsequently re-gauging is done in stages, changing the track gauge from narrow gauge of 1,067 mm to standard gauge of 1,435 mm.


broad gauge; iberian gauge; narrow gauge; standard gauge; Trans-Sumatera line; track gauge adjuster

Full Text:



Adif-Fichas Informativas. (2019). Tercer carril.

Almech, A., Roanes-Lozano, E., Solano-Macías, C., & Hernando, A. (2019). A New Approach to Shortest Route Finding in a Railway Network with Two Track Gauges and Gauge Changeovers. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2019.

Alvarez, A. G. (2010). Automatic Track Gauge Changeover for Trains in Spain (4th Ed.). Fundación de los Ferrocarriles Españoles.

Bayane, B. M., Yanjun, Q., & Bekhzad, Y. (2020). A review and analysis of railway transportation system in the economic community of West African States: Towards the development of sustainable regional goal. Global Journal of Engineering and Technology Advances, 2(2), 011-022.

Belyaev, V. I. (2013). Standards and new design of absorbing devices for automatic SA-3 couplers.

Burroughs, D. (2019). MOU signed for Finland – Estonia undersea rail tunnel. Retrieved from July 18, 2019

Cha, V., Bermudez, J., & DuMond, M. (2018). Making Solid Tracks: North and South Korean Railway Cooperation. Retrieved from Desember 11, 2018.

Coombe, D., Fisher, P., Hoffrichter, A., Kent, S., Reed, D., & Rowshandel, H. (2016). Development and design of a narrow-gauge hydrogen-hybrid locomotive. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, 230(1), 181-192.

Cuadrado, M., Zamorano, C., González, P., Nasarre, J., & Romo, E. (2008). Analysis of buckling in dual-gauge tracks. In Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Transport (pp. 177–184).

Domingo, L. M., Martín, C. Z., Herráiz, J. I. R., & del Rey, L. G. (2018). New third rail implementation system for conventional railroad tracks in service. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 22(2), 622-628.

Fourie, C. J., & Zhuwaki, N. T. (2017). A modelling framework for railway infrastructure reliability analysis. South African Journal of Industrial Engineering, 28(4), 150-160.

Gailienė, I., Gedaminskas, M., & Laurinavičius, A. (2018). Approach to rational calculation of superelevation in dual gauge track. Transport, 33(3), 699-706.

Gross, D. (2016). The Ties that Bind: Railroad Gauge Standards, Collusion, and Internal Trade in the 19th Century US. (No. 17–044). Harvard.

Hilmola, O. P. (2011). Should Czech Republic and Slovakia Have Rail Baltica Strategy? Quality Innovation Prosperity, 15(1), 05-16.

Hilton, G. W. (2006). A history of track gauge. How 4 feet, 8-1/2 inches became the standard. Retrieved from May 1, 2006.

Indraratna, B., Nimbalkar, S., & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2012). Future of Australian rail tracks capturing higher speeds with heavier freight. In Advances in Geotechnical Aspects of Roads and Railways (pp. 1-24). Australia: The Australian Geomechanics Society. Wollongong, Australia: Australian Geomechanics Society Sydney Chapter Symposium October 2012.

Irandu, E. M. (2017). A review of the impact of the standard Gauge railway (SGR) On Kenya’s national development. World Transport Policy & Practice, 23(2), 22–37.

Kakulis, A. (2011). A Feasibility Study for a Standard Gauge Separate Railway Line in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. In Presentation given in kick-off seminar or Rail Baltica Growth Corridor project, 9th of June.

Marian, Y. (2019). Track gauge by country in Europe. Retrieved from

Minsili, L. S., Kisito, M. J., Gilbert, T., Jean, J., & Gadam, K. A. (2017). Requirements to The Modernization of African Railway Networks: The Standard Gauge Versus The Metric Gauge. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), 8(7), 925–941.

Mochizuki, A. (2011). Conventional line speed increases and development of Shinkansen. Breakthrough in Japanese Railways (Vol. 57).

Perhubungan, K. Peraturan Menteri Perhubungan Republik Indonesia Nomor PM 60 tentang Persyaratan Teknis Jalur Kereta Api (2012). Jakarta: Kementerian Perhubungan Republik Indonesia.

Perkeretaapian, D. National Railroad Master Plan (2011). Jakarta: Ministry of Transportation of the Republic of Indonesia.

Popović, Z., Lazareviс, L., & Vatin, N. (2015). Railway gauge expansion in small radius curvature. Procedia Engineering, 117, 841-848.

Post, G. (2014). Guest Post. Greater Auckland. Retrieved from January 7, 2014

Puffert, D. J. (2000). The standardization of track gauge on North American Railways, 1830–1890. The Journal of Economic History, 60(4), 933-960.

Puffert, D. J. (2002). Path dependence in spatial networks: the standardization of railway track gauge. Explorations in Economic History, 39(3), 282-314.

Purwanto, D. (2008). Testing of Concrete Bearings for Track Railroad Tracks of 1435 mm Using the AREMA Test Standards. Journal of Standardization, 10(1), 11 – 18. (2019). Rail Gauges. Retrieved from

Semmens, P. (1997). High Speed in Japan: Shinkansen - The World’s Busiest High-speed Railway. Sheffield, UK: Platform 5 Publishing.

Smith, K. (2015). First broad-gauge Vectron arrives in Finland. Retrieved from April 10, 2015.

Starns, K. E. M. (2012). The Russian Railways and Imperial Intersections in the Russian Empire. University of Washington.

SzkodA, M. (2014). Assessment of reliability, availability and maintainability of rail gauge change systems. Eksploatacja i Niezawodność, 16(3), 422–432.

Trainline 7 statistical report. (2019). Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics. Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Communications; and the Australasian Railway Association. Canberra. Retrieved from December 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2020

Villalba, I., Insa, R., Salvador, P., & Martinez, P. (2017). Methodology for evaluating thermal track buckling in dual gauge tracks with continuous welded rail. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, 231(3), 269–279.

Warwick, G., & Cruse, C. (2014). An overview of the Australian railway system. Retrieved from April 23, 2014

Wissenbach, U., & Wang, Y. (2013). African politics meets Chinese engineers: The Chinese-built Standard Gauge Railway Project in Kenya and East Africa. SAIS-Cari Working Paper (Vol. 13).

Wong, Y. D., Chin, K. F., & Kuik, C. C. (2018). ASEAN’s role in rail connectivity in Asia: Evolution, factors and prospects. Geografia-Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 14(2).


  • There are currently no refbacks.